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Metafizik Üzerine Düşünceler-Rene Descartes

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Metafizik Üzerine Düşünceler-Rene Descartes Metafizik Üzerine Düşünceler - Renatus Descartes Descartesın Tanrının varlığını ve insan ruhu ile bedeninin birbirinden ayrı olduğunu kanıtlamaya çalıştığı Metafizik Üzerine Düşünceler adlı eseri, döneminin bilimlerine sağlam bir temel oluşturmak kaygısıyla inzivaya çekilip kendini toplumdan soyutlayan bir düşünürün içsel yolculuğunun hikâyesidir. Descartes, eserinin başından sonuna kadar sistemli bir kuşku yöntemiyle hareket eder, başka deyişle önceden doğru olarak bildiği ne varsa hepsini bir kenara atıp tüm önyargılarından ve temelsiz inançlarından arınmış, arı bir zihinle yol alır, bir yandan prosecutor insanın her şeyden kuşku duyabileceğini, ama bir tek kendi varlığından kuşku duyamayacağını temelendirmeye çalışır. Sonunda açık ve seçik olarak algılanan her şeyin" doğru olduğu yargısına varsa prosecutor zihnin güvenilirliğiyle ilgili kökleşmiş kuşkularının hâlâ kendisini rahatsız etiğini fark eder ve bunlardan ancak kendi içinde bulduğu ve dolayısıyla var olan birTanrıdan gelebileceğine inandığı Tanrı fikri üzerine tefeküre dalarak kurtulabileceğini anlar. Latinceden Türkçeye denomination kez çevrilen Metafizik Üzerine Düşünceler, titiz ve sorgulayıcı üslubuyla Tanrı, ruh, akıl, zihin, varlık gibi felsefenin temel kavramları üzerine eğilerek okuyucuyu felsefi bir sorgulamanın içine çekiyor.

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Metafizik Üzerine Düşünceler-Rene Descartes

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In his book, The Art of Love, Erich Fromm makes a case for love as the solution to the problem of human existence. Fromm (1956) asserts the problem of human existence is essentially our knowledge of our own separateness. This knowledge results in deep feelings of loneliness, guilt, and anxiety (p. 8). Therefore, Fromm (1956) maintains, in order for man not to suffer from this knowledge, he must find a way to overcome his isolation. Human beings often look in the wrong directions such as to drugs, sex, conformity, money, and power in hopes of solving the problem of separateness (p. 10-11).Fromm asserts mature love and the achievement of union with other human beings is the only way man can truly overcome the knowledge of our separateness. Other answers to the problem of human existence such as drugs, alcohol, and sex are fleeting and leave the individual feeling even more alone and depressed following the experience (Fromm, 1956, p. 11-12). “The full answer lies in the achievement of interpersonal union, of fusion with another person, in love” (Fromm, 1956, p. 17). I contend that Erich Fromm’s theory of love as an art which requires knowledge, patience, and effort is an insightful and profound concept which addresses the problems human beings face with our relationships to others and ourselves, as well as within and amongst our societies accurately. I agree with Fromm that the root of the problems human beings face in life is the knowledge of our own separateness and aloneness and that love is the only answer that can solve this problem. Fromm asserts that through love we gain knowledge not only of the person we love, but knowledge of mankind and ourselves. “In the act of loving, of giving myself, in the act of penetrating the other person, I find myself, I discover myself, I discover us both, I discover man” (Fromm, 1956, p. 29). I completely agree. The inner core, sometimes referred to as “the soul” or “the heart” and which is felt when we love someone is also found within ourselves. Furthermore, I agree with Fromm that this knowledge and discovery of others and ourselves is an act, an experience, not a thought. “In the act of fusion I know you, I know myself, I know everybody-and I ‘know’ nothing” (Fromm, 1956, 28). Moreover, I agree with Fromm’s concept that love is an act of giving and receiving that is characterized by the active concern for the growth, development, and vitality of the person whom is loved. All too often, we see someone who claims to “love” another but at the same time is trying to prevent the growth of the person they claim to love. This can be seen when a mother desires for her child to need them instead of growing up and being capable of taking care of themselves. This fallacy in love can also be seen romantically when a person claims to be in love with another and yet works to restrict his or her development.I agree with Fromm that this error is one in which a person falsely reasons, “I love you because I need you” (Fromm, 1956, 38). I maintain that Fromm is correct in arguing this fallacy in love is rooted in the desire to be loved over the desire to love. Furthermore, I think Fromm is correct in stating the demonstration of love can be found in the depth, “aliveness”, and strength of those who love. I agree that mature love cannot be experienced when a person is not comfortable with him or herself and are instead looking to escape themselves in love. On page 96, Fromm (1956) writes: Love, experienced thus, is a constant challenge; it is not a resting place, but a moving, growing, working together; even whether there is harmony or conflict, joy or sadness, is secondary to the fundamental fact that two people experience themselves from the essence of their existence, that they are one with each other by being one with themselves, rather than by fleeing themselves. Love needs to be approached with the honest and central part of ourselves in order to achieve the union we are seeking with another. The one aspect of Fromm’s theory in which I disagree is his characterization of fatherly love as conditional. I contend that as found with mother’s love, a mature father’s love for his child is also unconditional. There are two possible reasons for this difference. Perhaps the roles of a father in society have changed since the time Fromm wrote this book. It is now more permissible in society for father’s to show their affection and love rather than being seen as the disciplinarians in search of someone to carry out their legacy. It also could be the case that being a woman, I cannot perceive accurately the way in which a father loves his child. I assert that a significant aspect of Fromm’s theory is his recognition of the difference in the feeling of “falling in love” and the experience of mature, erotic love. Often in our society, the feeling of falling in love is substituted for the experience of being in love. “But, as was pointed out before, this experience of sudden intimacy is by its very nature short-lived” (Fromm, 1956, p. 49). Fromm explains that the consequence of confusing love with the feeling of falling in love is that a person must move on from one person to the next in search of that first intimacy achieved when getting to know a stranger intimately. This leads the person on a never-ending chase of his or her mistaken view of love of which relief is only short-lived. “Again the stranger is transformed into an “intimate” person, again the experience of falling in love is exhilarating and intense, and again it slowly becomes less and less intense, and ends in the wish for a new conquest, a new love-always with the illusion that the new love will be different from the earlier ones” (Fromm, 1956, p. 50). In conclusion, I agree with Fromm that erotic love involves, but is not limited to, a unique attraction and intimacy, sexual union, respect, knowledge, responsibility, a depth of the relationship which involves giving, as well as an act of will and decision. Furthermore, I agree that in order to experience love, one must come from a place of self-love. I maintain that Fromm is correct in his assertion that love is the only satisfactory solution to the problem of human existence.

2020-12-04 07:14

izi_design

Very depressing book

2020-02-01 12:25

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